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Workshop 2: How to Innovate

0 Comments 12 June 2012

Avanti Fontana will be facilitating two-hour workshop session at International Conference on Small and Medium Enterprise: Innovation and Sustainability in SME Development, Puri Saron Hotel, Seminyak Bali, Indonesia, 14-16 June 2012. The conference organizer is Parahyangan Catholic University’s Institute for Research and Community Service.

Avanti Fontana’s presentation (June 15th) will be focusing on How to Innovate: Applying Diagnostic IPO Approach to Innovation. She will also reveal some research findings related to the workshop topic. Her research has been supported by CIS School of Innovation.

All participants of the session can view some of her references herein below.

Provider: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
AU – Perry-Smith, Jill E. & Coff, Russell W., 2011
TI – In the mood for entrepreneurial creativity? How optimal group affect differs for generating and selecting ideas for new ventures
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
VL – 5(3)
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
KW – entrepreneurial creativity, opportunity recognition, strategy process
AB – Superior entrepreneurial creativity arises when teams are effective at both generating diverse alternatives and culling them to select the best solution. We develop theory about how the optimal group mood varies for the generation and selection stages of creativity. Using data from an entrepreneurial creativity task, we find that these stages require distinct collective moods. While an activated-pleasant mood promotes variance generation, idea selection requires a very different mood. Findings suggest that some teams fail to make transitions to the appropriate mood. We conclude by discussing implications for promoting entrepreneurial creativity. Copyright © 2011 Strategic Management Society.

AU – Felin, Teppo & Zenger, Todd R., 2009
TI – Entrepreneurs as theorists: on the origins of collective beliefs and novel strategies
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
VL – 3(2)
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
KW – strategic entrepreneurship, imagination, theorizing, beliefs, novel strategies
AB – What are the origins of entrepreneurial beliefs about new opportunities and the value of resources? In this article, we outline a theory and model of the emergence of entrepreneurial beliefs and novel strategies. We first summarize extant literature by highlighting both the experiential and perceptual (or observational) origins of entrepreneurial beliefs and strategies. Thereafter we carefully explicate the role that entrepreneurial theorizing plays in the emergence of novel beliefs about new opportunities and make links with experiential and perceptual arguments. We specifically discuss three key mechanisms of entrepreneurial theorizing, namely: (1) the triggering role of experiential and observational fragments; (2) the imagination of possibilities; and (3) reasoning and justification. Importantly, we also explicate the social mechanisms of entrepreneurial theorizing and the emergence of entrepreneurial beliefs and novel strategies, specifically by discussing the role of social interaction and self-selection in entrepreneurial activity. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Dyer, Jeffrey H.
AU – Gregersen, Hal B
AU – Christensen, Clayton
TI – Entrepreneur behaviors, opportunity recognition, and the origins of innovative ventures
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 2
IS – 4
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.59
DO – 10.1002/sej.59
SP – 317
EP – 338
KW – entrepreneur
KW – behaviors
KW – opportunity recognition
KW – new venture
KW – innovation
PY – 2008
AB – This study traces the origins of innovative strategies by examining the attributes of ‘innovative entrepreneurs.’ In an inductive grounded theory study of innovative entrepreneurs, we develop a theory that innovative entrepreneurs differ from executives on four behavioral patterns through which they acquire information: (1) questioning; (2) observing; (3) experimenting; and (4) idea networking. We develop operational measures of each of these behaviors and find significant differences between innovative entrepreneurs and executives in a large sample survey of 72 successful and unsuccessful innovative entrepreneurs and 310 executives. Drawing on network theory, we develop a theory of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition that explains why these behaviors increase the probability of generating an idea for an innovative venture. We contend that one’s ability to generate novel ideas for innovative new businesses is a function of one’s behaviors that trigger cognitive processes to produce novel business ideas. We also posit that innovative entrepreneurs are less susceptible to the status quo bias and engage in these information-seeking behaviors with a motivation to change the status quo. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Shah, Sonali K.
AU – Tripsas, Mary
TI – The accidental entrepreneur: the emergent and collective process of user entrepreneurship
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 1
IS – 1-2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.15
DO – 10.1002/sej.15
SP – 123
EP – 140
KW – user entrepreneurship
KW – user innovation communities
KW – entrepreneurship process
KW – collective creativity
KW – emerging industries
PY – 2007
AB – We develop a process model of how users, an understudied source of entrepreneurship, create, evaluate, share, and commercialize their ideas. We compare and contrast our model to the classic model of the entrepreneurial process, highlighting the emergent and collective nature of the user’s entrepreneurial process. Users are often ‘accidental’ entrepreneurs who happen upon an idea through their own use and then share it with others; more specifically, the development of an idea and subsequent experimentation, adaptation, and preliminary adoption often occur before that idea is formally evaluated as the basis of a commercial venture. Users also tend to engage in collective creative activity prior to firm formation—often within the social context provided by user communities—that results in the improvement of ideas. Finally, we provide detailed data on the prevalence of user entrepreneurship in the juvenile products industry. Copyright © 2007 Strategic Management Society.
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TY – JOUR
AU – Short, Jeremy C.
AU – Moss, Todd W.
AU – Lumpkin, G. T.
TI – Research in social entrepreneurship: past contributions and future opportunities
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 3
IS – 2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.69
DO – 10.1002/sej.69
SP – 161
EP – 194
KW – social entrepreneurship
KW – social venture
KW – social enterprise
KW – community enterprise
KW – nonprofit
KW – public administration
PY – 2009
AB – Social entrepreneurship has been a topic of academic inquiry for nearly 20 years, yet relatively little scholarly output has appeared in mainstream management and entrepreneurship journals. Our review of this literature reveals that conceptual articles outnumber empirical studies, and empirical efforts often lack formal hypotheses and rigorous methods. These findings suggest that social entrepreneurship research remains in an embryonic state. Future research would benefit from the incorporation of multivariate methods to complement the case study techniques that have dominated previous efforts. Our review also suggests that social entrepreneurship is informed by common areas of interest to management scholars like entrepreneurship, public/nonprofit management, and social issues, all of which represent fruitful venues for future research efforts. Therefore, we recommend that scholars embrace key themes in strategic entrepreneurship and frame their research using established theories, such as contingency theory, creation theory, discovery theory, innovation diffusion theory, resource dependence theory, and other theoretical bases relevant to strategic entrepreneurship research. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society.
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TY – JOUR
AU – Simsek, Zeki
AU – Heavey, Ciaran
TI – The mediating role of knowledge-based capital for corporate entrepreneurship effects on performance: A study of small- to medium-sized firms
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 5
IS – 1
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.108
DO – 10.1002/sej.108
SP – 81
EP – 100
KW – corporate entrepreneurship
KW – knowledge-based capital
KW – firm performance
KW – small- to medium-sized firms
KW – survey design
KW – mediational model
PY – 2011
AB – Even though research suggests that a firm’s pursuit of corporate entrepreneurship directly contributes to its performance, we develop a deeper explanation, based on the insight that this pursuit develops and extends the firm’s knowledge-based capital. Specifically, we first demonstrate that the pursuit of corporate entrepreneurship enhances the firm’s knowledge-based capital residing in people (human capital), relationships (social capital), and systems (organizational capital). Then, we examine the mediating role of each capital type for corporate entrepreneurship effects on performance. We test our hypotheses using multisource data from a sample of CEOs and their top management teams in 125 firms, including a time-lagged measurement of knowledge-based capital and performance. Our findings provide general support for this theory and indicate that corporate entrepreneurship is positively associated with knowledge-based capital and through this, with performance. Copyright © 2011 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Schendel, Dan
AU – Hitt, Michael A.
TI – Introduction to Volume 1
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 1
IS – 1-2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.16
DO – 10.1002/sej.16
SP – 1
EP – 6
PY – 2007
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Kleinbaum, Adam M.
AU – Tushman, Michael L.
TI – Building bridges: the social structure of interdependent innovation
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 1
IS – 1-2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.14
DO – 10.1002/sej.14
SP – 103
EP – 122
KW – social networks
KW – innovation
KW – interdependence
KW – corporate strategy
KW – exploration
PY – 2007
AB – Multidivisional firms often fail to take advantage of innovations that involve combining resources from distinct divisions. This failure of cross-line-of-business innovation is a consequence of design choices employed to execute the firm’s strategy: in organizing around its core businesses, the firm renders interdependence between divisions residual to the formal structure. As a result, those innovations which involve cross-line-of-business interdependence are trumped by the firm’s articulated strategy and structure. Social structures could, potentially, fill this coordination gap. But social structures associated with the initiation of interdependent innovation are inversely associated with their execution. We build a dynamic, corporate-level, evolutionary model in which individuals autonomously initiate cross-line-of-business projects not through the formal structure of the firm, but using contacts from their own social networks. Some of these projects are selected and actively supported by senior executives; this support sends clear signals about what collaboration is valued by the firm, which gives other actors powerful, albeit informal, incentives to connect with others across the interunit boundary. As a result, the sparse interunit social structure that was conducive to initiation changes, becoming much more cohesive (at least locally) and is able to support execution and retain these interdependent innovations. Thus, where intra-divisional innovations are primarily driven by organizational structure, we suggest that interdivisional innovations are driven primarily by social networks. Copyright © 2007 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Powell, Walter W.
AU – Sandholtz, Kurt W.
TI – Amphibious entrepreneurs and the emergence of organizational forms
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 6
IS – 2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.1129
DO – 10.1002/sej.1129
SP – 94
EP – 115
KW – emergence
KW – imprinting
KW – models of organizing
KW – recombination
KW – transposition
PY – 2012
AB – We study the emergence of organizational forms, focusing on two mechanisms—reconfiguration and transposition—that distinguish the founding models of the first 26 biotechnology companies, all created in the industry’s first decade, from 1972 to 1981. We analyze rich archival data using hierarchical cluster analysis, revealing four organizational variants of the dedicated biotech firm (DBF). Three were products of reconfiguration, as executives from Big Pharma used past practices to incorporate new science. One DBF variant resulted from ‘amphibious’ scientists who imported organizing ideas from the academy into their VC-funded start-ups. We argue that such transpositions are fragile, yet charged with generative possibilities. Copyright © 2012 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Zahra, Shaker A.
TI – The virtuous cycle of discovery and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 2
IS – 3
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.47
DO – 10.1002/sej.47
SP – 243
EP – 257
KW – opportunities
KW – discovery
KW – creation
KW – behavioral theory of the firm
KW – corporate entrepreneurship
PY – 2008
AB – Researchers have debated whether entrepreneurial opportunities are discovered or created. However, they have often overlooked the importance of the contextual variables that stimulate, shape, and define the entrepreneurial act. This article focuses on entrepreneurial activities within technology-based established companies and shows how and why certain contexts are more conducive for discovery, while others promote the discovery and creation of opportunities. The article suggests a virtuous and dynamic cycle where discovery enriches creation which, in turn, fosters the discovery of new opportunities. The focus on the context and key features of entrepreneurial search contributes to the behavioral theory of and the debate on the origins of opportunities. Copyright © 2008 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Dew, Nicholas
AU – Sarasathy, Saras
AU – Read, Stuart
AU – Wiltbank, Robert
TI – Affordable loss: behavioral economic aspects of the plunge decision
JO – Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
JA – Strat.Entrepreneurship J.
VL – 3
IS – 2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1932-443X
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sej.66
DO – 10.1002/sej.66
SP – 105
EP – 126
KW – affordable loss
KW – entrepreneurship
KW – behavioral economics
KW – effectuation
PY – 2009
AB – Affordable loss involves decision makers estimating what they might be able to put at risk and determining what they are willing to lose in order to follow a course of action. Using the entrepreneur’s new venture plunge decision, this article combines insights from behavioral economics to develop a detailed analysis of the affordable loss heuristic. Specifically, we develop propositions to explain how individuals: (1) decide what they can afford to lose; and (2) what they are willing to lose in order to plunge into entrepreneurship. The article also discusses the implications of affordable loss for the economics of strategic entrepreneurship. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – West, Michael A.
TI – Sparkling Fountains or Stagnant Ponds: An Integrative Model of Creativity and Innovation Implementation in Work Groups
JO – Applied Psychology
VL – 51
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Science Ltd
SN – 1464-0597
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00951
DO – 10.1111/1464-0597.00951
SP – 355
EP – 387
PY – 2002
AB – Cet article présente une synthèse des recherches et théories qui éclairent notre compréhension de la créativité et de la mise en œuvre de l’innovation dans les groupes de travail. Il semble que la créativité apparaisse essentiellement au cours des premières étapes du processus, avant la mise en œuvre. On étudie l’influence des caractéristiques de la tâche, des capacités et de l’éventail des connaissances du groupe, des demandes externes, des mécanismes d’intégration et de cohérence de groupe. La perception d’une menace, l’incertitude ou de fortes exigences entravent la créativité, mais favorisent l’innovation. La diversité des connaissances et des capacités est un bon prédicteur de l’innovation, mais l’intégration du groupe et les compétences sont indispensables pour récolter les fruits de la diversité. On examine aussi les implications théoriques et pratiques de ces considérations. In this article I synthesise research and theory that advance our understanding of creativity and innovation implementation in groups at work. It is suggested that creativity occurs primarily at the early stages of innovation processes with innovation implementation later. The influences of task characteristics, group knowledge diversity and skill, external demands, integrating group processes and intragroup safety are explored. Creativity, it is proposed, is hindered whereas perceived threat, uncertainty or other high levels of demands aid the implementation of innovation. Diversity of knowledge and skills is a powerful predictor of innovation, but integrating group processes and competencies are needed to enable the fruits of this diversity to be harvested. The implications for theory and practice are also explored.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – BLEDOW, RONALD
AU – FRESE, MICHAEL
AU – ANDERSON, NEIL
AU – EREZ, MIRIAM
AU – FARR, JAMES
TI – A Dialectic Perspective on Innovation: Conflicting Demands, Multiple Pathways, and Ambidexterity
JO – Industrial and Organizational Psychology
VL – 2
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1754-9434
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2009.01154.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2009.01154.x
SP – 305
EP – 337
PY – 2009
AB – Innovation, the development and intentional introduction of new and useful ideas by individuals, teams, and organizations, lies at the heart of human adaptation. Decades of research in different disciplines and at different organizational levels have produced a wealth of knowledge about how innovation emerges and the factors that facilitate and inhibit innovation. We propose that this knowledge needs integration. In an initial step toward this goal, we apply a dialectic perspective on innovation to overcome limitations of dichotomous reasoning and to gain a more valid account of innovation. We point out that individuals, teams, and organizations need to self-regulate and manage conflicting demands of innovation and that multiple pathways can lead to idea generation and innovation. By scrutinizing the current use of the concept of organizational ambidexterity and extending it to individuals and teams, we develop a framework to help guide and facilitate future research and practice. Readers expecting specific and universal prescriptions of how to innovate will be disappointed as current research does not allow such inferences. Rather, we think innovation research should focus on developing and testing principles of innovation management in addition to developing decision aids for organizational practice. To this end, we put forward key propositions and action principles of innovation management.
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TY – JOUR
AU – García-Morales, Víctor J.
AU – Matías-Reche, Fernando
AU – Verdú-Jover, Antonio J.
TI – Influence of Internal Communication on Technological Proactivity, Organizational Learning, and Organizational Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector
JO – Journal of Communication
VL – 61
IS – 1
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1460-2466
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01530.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01530.x
SP – 150
EP – 177
PY – 2011
AB – This investigation formulates a global model to analyze the influence of internal communication (IC) on technological proactivity (TP), organizational learning (OL), and organizational innovation (OI); the direct and indirect relationships between these strategic variables; and the influence of OI on organizational performance (OP). The hypotheses are tested using data from 164 European and U.S. technological firms. The results show that (a) IC influences TP, OL, and OI; (b) TP influences OL and OI, and OL influences OI; and (c) OI influences OP. This article discusses these findings and provides several implications for future research.
AB –
AB – L’influence de la communication interne sur la proactivité technologique, sur l’apprentissage organisationnel et sur l’innovation organisationnelle dans le secteur pharmaceutique Víctor J. García-Morales, Fernando Matías-Reche & Antonio J. Verdú-Jover Cette recherche énonce un modèle global permettant d’analyser (a) l’influence de la communication interne sur la proactivité technologique, sur l’apprentissage organisationnel et sur l’innovation organisationnelle, (b) les relations directes et indirectes entre ces variables stratégiques et (c) l’influence de l’innovation organisationnelle sur les résultats organisationnels. Les hypothèses sont vérifiées grâce à des données de 164 entreprises de technologie européennes et américaines. Les résultats démontrent que (1) la communication interne influence la proactivité technologique, l’apprentissage organisationnel et l’innovation organisationnelle, (2) la proactivité technologique influence l’apprentissage organisationnel et l’innovation organisationnelle, alors que l’apprentissage organisationnel influence l’innovation organisationnelle et (3) l’innovation organisationnelle influence les résultats organisationnels. L’article commente ces résultats et offre plusieurs avenues pour la recherche future. Mots clés : communication interne, proactivité technologique, apprentissage organisationnel, innovation organisationnelle, résultats organisationnels
AB – Der Einfluss interner Kommunikation auf technologische Proaktivität, organisationales Lernen und organisationale Innovation auf dem pharmazeutischen Sektor Víctor J. García-Morales, Fernando Matías-Reche & Antonio J. Verdú-Jover In dieser Untersuchung formulieren wir ein globales Modell zur Analyse von: dem Einfluss interner Kommunikation auf technologische Proaktivität, organisationales Lernen und organisationale Innovation; die direkten und indirekten Beziehungen zwischen diesen strategischen Variablen, und den Einfluss von organisationaler Innovation auf die Arbeitsleistung der Organisation. Die Hypothesen werden an Daten von 164 europäischen und amerikanischen Technologiefirmen getestet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass (1) interne Kommunikation technologische Proaktivität, organisationales Lernen und organisationale Innovation beeinflusst; (2) technologische Proaktivität organisationales Lernen und organisationale Innovation beeinflusst, und organisationales Lernen organisationale Innovation beeinflusst; (3) organisationale Innovation die Arbeitsleistung der Organisation beeinflusst. Der Artikel diskutiert die Ergebnisse und bietet Schlussfolgerungen für weitere Forschung. Schlüsselbegriffe: interne Kommunikation, technologische Proaktivität, organisationales Lernen, organisationale Innovation, Arbeitsleistung der Organisation
AB –
AB – La Influencia de la Comunicación Interna sobre la Proactividad Tecnología, el Aprendizaje Organizacional y la Innovación Organizacional en el Sector Farmacéutico Víctor J. García-Morales† School of Economics and Business, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, s.n., Granada 18071, Spain (E.U.) Fernando Matías-Reche School of Economics and Business, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, s.n., Granada 18071, Spain (E.U.) Antonio J. Verdú-Jover Faculty of Social and Juridical Sciences, University Miguel Hernandez, Edificio La Galia. Avda. del Ferrocarril, s/n, Elche (Alicante) 03202, Spain (EUROPE). Resumen Esta investigación formula un modelo global para analizar la influencia de la comunicación interna sobre la proactividad tecnología, el aprendizaje organizacional y la innovación organizacional; las relaciones directas e indirectas entre estas variables estratégicas; y la influencia de la innovación organizacional sobre la performance organizacional. Las hipótesis son puestas a prueba usando los datos de 164 firmas tecnológicas Europeas y Americanas. Los resultados muestran que (1) la comunicación interna influye sobre la proactividad tecnológica, el aprendizaje organizacional y la innovación organizacional; (2) la proactividad tecnológica influencia el aprendizaje organizacional y la innovación organizacional, y el aprendizaje organizacional influye la innovación organizacional; (3) la innovación organizacional influye la performancia organizacional. Este manuscrito discute estos hallazgos y provee varias implicancias para investigaciones futuras. Palabras Claves: Comunicación Interna, Proactividad Tecnológica, Aprendizaje Organizacional, Innovación Organizacional, Performance Organizacional
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TY – JOUR
AU – Sears, Greg J.
AU – Baba, Vishwanath V.
TI – Toward a Multistage, Multilevel Theory of Innovation
JO – Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration
JA – Can J Adm Sci
VL – 28
IS – 4
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
SN – 1936-4490
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjas.198
DO – 10.1002/cjas.198
SP – 357
EP – 372
KW – innovation
KW – creativity
KW – invention
KW – adoption
KW – organizational change
KW – technological change
KW – cross-level theory
KW – innovation
KW – créativité
KW – invention
KW – adoption
KW – changement organisationnel
KW – changement technologique
KW – théorie de niveau transversal
PY – 2011
AB – Despite an impressive amount of research, the innovation literature may be characterized as fragmented with little cross-fertilization and synthesis of findings across levels. Based on a review of conceptual and empirical work on innovation, we present a cross-level theory that aims to clarify terminology in the innovation process and highlight key concepts and themes that have emerged in innovation research across levels of analysis. We model innovation, offer specific research propositions derived from the model, and identify directions for future research both within and across levels of analysis. Overall, this research responds to the need for greater cross-level theory building on innovation and a more inclusive consideration of various social and contextual influences in the innovation process. Copyright © 2011 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AB – Même si la littérature sur l’innovation est d’une richesse impressionnante, on peut la caractériser comme fragmentaire, avec peu de brassages fructueux et de synthèse des résultats d’un niveau à l’autre. Le présent article s’appuie sur une revue des travaux conceptuels et empiriques sur l’innovation pour présenter une théorie de niveau transversal (cross-level theory). Ladite théorie se propose de clarifier la terminologie sur le processus d’innovation et de mettre en lumière les concepts clés et les thèmes qui ont émergé des recherches sur l’innovation d’un niveau d’analyse à l’autre. L’article modèle l’innovation, fait des propositions précises de recherche qui découlent du modèle et présente des directions pour des recherches futures non seulement à l’intérieur des niveaux d’analyse, mais aussi d’un niveau d’analyse à l’autre. En somme, cette étude vient répondre au besoin de l’élaboration d’une théorie de niveau transversal plus large sur l’innovation et d’une prise en compte plus générale des différentes influences sociales et contextuelles dans le processus d’innovation. Copyright © 2011 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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TY – JOUR
AU – Nijstad, Bernard A.
AU – De Dreu, Carsten K.W.
TI – Creativity and Group Innovation
JO – Applied Psychology
VL – 51
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Science Ltd
SN – 1464-0597
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00984
DO – 10.1111/1464-0597.00984
SP – 400
EP – 406
PY – 2002
ER –

TY – CHAP
TI – Great Minds Don’t Think Alike? Person-Level Predictors of Innovation at Work
AU – Patterson, Fiona
PB – John Wiley & Sons Ltd
SN – 9780470696392
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470696392.ch4
DO – 10.1002/9780470696392.ch4
SP – 115
EP – 144
KW – organizations
KW – innovation
KW – general intelligence
KW – practical knowledge
KW – normative human cognition
T2 – International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2002
PY – 2008
AB – This chapter contains section titled:

* Introduction
* Defining Innovation
* Theoretical Developments in Innovation Research
* The Person-Level Predictors in the Innovation Process
* Practical Implications
* Conclusions and Implications for Future Research
* Notes
* References
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Im, Subin
AU – Montoya, Mitzi M.
AU – Workman, John P.
TI – Antecedents and Consequences of Creativity in Product Innovation Teams
JO – Journal of Product Innovation Management
JA – J Prod Innov Manag
SN – 1540-5885
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.00887.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.00887.x
SP – n/a
EP – n/a
PY – 2012
AB – The generation of creative ideas and their manifestation as new products (NPs) are fundamental innovation activities of product innovation teams. Despite the importance of generating creative ideas at the fuzzy front end of the product innovation process, our understanding of antecedents and consequences of creativity of product innovation teams is limited. Drawing on Shane and Ulrich’s organization design perspective of innovation, this study aims at examining the intermediary role of creativity as a critical link between team dynamics and product competitive advantage. In this study, the authors focus on NP and marketing program (MP) creativity in product innovation teams. They develop and empirically test a model that examines how internal and external team dynamics influence NP and MP creativity, and how NP and MP creativity affect product competitive advantage as a strategic innovation outcome. The study uses 206 matched responses from senior managers and product team leaders in high-tech manufacturing firms in the United States to avoid common-method bias. The authors use maximum likelihood estimation in a structural equation model to empirically test the proposed model. They find that two separate dimensions of creativity—novelty and meaningfulness—are differentially affected by team dynamics. For example, NP novelty as a result of divergent process is predominantly influenced by external team factors such as market-based reward system and planning process formalization. On the other hand, NP meaningfulness as a result of convergent process is dominantly influenced by internal team factors such as social cohesion and superordinate identity. In addition, MP novelty is determined by social cohesion, superordinate identity, planning process formalization, and encouragement to take risks, while MP meaningfulness is influenced by social cohesion and planning process formalization. Our findings also suggest that NP novelty and meaningfulness, but not MP novelty and meaningfulness, play important intermediary roles in determining product competitive advantage. This study contributes to narrowing the important gap in the literature by examining the effect of team dynamics on creativity and by linking creativity to strategic innovation outcomes. Our study suggests that a firm’s ability to manage team dynamics toward generating creative NPs and MPs constitutes a dynamic capability that can provide a competitive advantage over the competition.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Pirola-Merlo, Andrew
AU – Mann, Leon
TI – The relationship between individual creativity and team creativity: aggregating across people and time
JO – Journal of Organizational Behavior
JA – J. Organiz. Behav.
VL – 25
IS – 2
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SN – 1099-1379
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.240
DO – 10.1002/job.240
SP – 235
EP – 257
PY – 2004
AB – This paper investigates how the creativity of individual team members is related to team creativity, and the influence of climate for creativity in the workplace on individual and team creativity. A multilevel theoretical model is proposed, and the authors report a study which tests the model using a sample of 54 research and development teams. The results showed that team creativity scores could be explained statistically by aggregation processes across both people and time. Team creativity at a particular point in time could be explained as either the average or a weighted average of team member creativity; the creativity of project outcomes was explained by either the maximum of or average of team creativity across time-points. According to the model, failure to account for aggregation across time as well as across individuals can result in misleading empirical results, and can result in the erroneous conclusion that team climate influences team creativity directly rather than indirectly via individuals. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Zheng, Wei
TI – A Social Capital Perspective of Innovation from Individuals to Nations: Where is Empirical Literature Directing Us?
JO – International Journal of Management Reviews
VL – 12
IS – 2
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1468-2370
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00247.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00247.x
SP – 151
EP – 183
PY – 2010
AB – Social capital is regarded as the bedrock of innovation. However, inadequate efforts have been made to synthesize the way in which different components of social capital dynamically influence innovation. This paper reviews existing empirical studies on the relationship between social capital and innovation of the individual, team, organization, city and nation. Analyses were carried out to identify consensus, discordances and gaps in the social capital–innovation connection. The findings suggested that the structural components of social capital, including ego network size, structural holes, tie strength and centrality have a significant impact on innovation. Their impact, however, tends to be moderated by contextual and intellectual factors, such as the nature and type of innovation, internal vs external ties, costs of maintaining the ties and existing intellectual capital. The relational components of social capital, trust and cognitive norms, demonstrated a consistently positive relationship with innovation across contexts. The cognitive components of social capital have not sufficiently established their contribution to innovation apart from the other two dimensions. Several insights regarding the general literature on social capital and innovation were identified, including the conceptualization of social capital, measurement of innovation, and the causal relationship between social capital and innovation. Suggestions are offered for future research agenda. Implications for managerial practices based on the study findings are also drawn.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – ISAKSEN, SCOTT G.
AU – AKKERMANS, HANS J.
TI – Creative Climate: A Leadership Lever for Innovation
JO – The Journal of Creative Behavior
VL – 45
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 2162-6057
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2011.tb01425.x
DO – 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2011.tb01425.x
SP – 161
EP – 187
KW – Leadership behavior
KW – organizational climate
KW – creativity
KW – innovation
PY – 2011
AB – The working atmosphere within an organization has an important influence on its level of innovative productivity. Organizational leaders influence innovative productivity as well as the climate for creativity and innovation. This exploratory study included 140 respondents from 103 different organizations, 31 industries, and 10 countries, all of whom completed an online survey focused on examining the intervening nature of the climate for creativity and innovation. First, those who perceived more leadership support for innovation had significantly better creative climate scores. Second, those who perceived higher levels of innovative productivity also had better climate scores. Finally, organizational climate as an intervening variable between leadership behavior and innovation was confirmed through partial correlation and mediation analysis. The findings of this study support the pivotal role that creative climate plays between leadership behavior and innovative productivity.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Le Masson, Pascal
AU – Hatchuel, Armand
AU – Weil, Benoit
TI – The Interplay between Creativity Issues and Design Theories: A New Perspective for Design Management Studies?
JO – Creativity and Innovation Management
VL – 20
IS – 4
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1467-8691
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2011.00613.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1467-8691.2011.00613.x
SP – 217
EP – 237
PY – 2011
AB – In this article, we analyse the relationship between creativity issues and design theory. Although these two notions seem to correspond to different academic fields (psychology, cognitive science and management for creativity; engineering science and logic for design theory), they appear to be deeply related when it comes to design methods and management. Analysing three historical moments in design theory building (the 1850s, with the ratio method for industrial upgrading in Germany, the 20th century with systematic design, and the 1920s with the Bauhaus theory), we point to the dialectical interplay that links creativity and design theory, structured around the notion of ‘fixation effect’: creativity identifies fixation effects, which become the targets of new design theories; design theories invent models of thought to overcome them; and, in turn, these design theories can also create new fixation effects that will then be designated by creativity studies. This dialectical interplay leads to regular inventions of new ways of managing design, i.e., new ways of managing knowledge, processes and organizations for design activities. We use this framework to analyse recent trends in creativity and design theories.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Phan, Phillip
AU – Zhou, Jing
AU – Abrahamson, Eric
TI – Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship in China
JO – Management and Organization Review
VL – 6
IS – 2
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1740-8784
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00181.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00181.x
SP – 175
EP – 194
KW – creativity
KW – entrepreneurship
KW – guanxi
KW – innovation
KW – mega-event
PY – 2010
AB – As the largest and fastest growing transition economy in the world, China’s entrance onto the global stage has been swift and dramatic. As such, almost every facet of entrepreneurship, from the identification of nascent opportunities to the challenges of managing triple-digit growth to the transformation of firms from dying to emerging industries, can be studied as natural experiments. The four papers in this issue are dedicated to exploring entrepreneurial innovation in the Chinese private economy. They include two clinical studies, one on the impact of the Beijing Olympics on entrepreneurship, and the other on the co-evolution of guanxi networks and entrepreneurial growth. Two studies test theories explaining the organizational drivers of innovation and entrepreneurship. In the best traditions, these four studies offer theoretical insights on the broader implications of entrepreneurship research in the Chinese context. We locate the findings offered by these four papers in the systems, organizational and social contexts of creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship research. Finally, we offer some suggestions for future research and ways in which advances in the theoretical conversation should proceed.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Isaksen, Scott G.
AU – Ekvall, Göran
TI – Managing for Innovation: The Two Faces of Tension in Creative Climates
JO – Creativity and Innovation Management
VL – 19
IS – 2
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1467-8691
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x
SP – 73
EP – 88
PY – 2010
AB – Part of managing for innovation is creating the appropriate climate so that people can share and build upon each other’s ideas and suggestions. Yet, there are increasing pressures and potential unproductive levels of tension within organizations. This article points out the distinction between two forms of tension that appear within the research on organizational climates for creativity as well as the conflict management literature. The Debate dimension is described as reflecting a more productive idea tension and the Conflict dimension suggests a more non-productive personal tension. A series of studies, across multiple levels of analysis, are summarized and a new study is reported in order to highlight the finding that relatively higher levels of Debate, and lower levels of Conflict are more conducive to organizational creativity and innovation. A practical model for the constructive use of differences is shared, along with a few strategies for reducing the negative tension associated with Conflict and increasing the positive aspects associated with Debate.
ER –

TY – CHAP
TI – Developing Innovation in Organizations
AU – King, Nigel
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
SN – 9780470753392
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753392.ch19
DO – 10.1002/9780470753392.ch19
SP – 341
EP – 362
KW – innovation
KW – organizations
KW – organizational psychology
KW – research
KW – economic changes
T2 – Individual Differences and Development in Organisations
PY – 2008
AB – This chapter contains section titled:

* SUMMARY
* INTRODUCTION
* DEFINING INNOVATION
* AIMS OF THIS CHAPTER
* CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
* INNOVATION AS ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCT
* INDIVIDUAL LEVEL RESEARCH
* GROUP LEVEL RESEARCH
* ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL RESEARCH
* LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH INTO ‘INNOVATION AS ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCT’
* INNOVATION AS ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS
* STAGE MODELS OF THE PROCESS
* AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH: THE MINNESOTA INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
* TEMPORAL PROCESSES AND WORK GROUP INNOVATION
* INNOVATION AS ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC
* CONCLUSION
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – HUI, ANNA N. N.
AU – LAU, SING
TI – Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Developing Creativity Education in Four Asian Chinese Societies: A Policy Analysis
JO – The Journal of Creative Behavior
VL – 44
IS – 4
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 2162-6057
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2010.tb01334.x
DO – 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2010.tb01334.x
SP – 215
EP – 235
KW – Creativity in Education
KW – Policy Analysis
KW – Chinese Societies
PY – 2010
AB – The present study sought to compare and contrast educational policies on creativity education in four Asian Chinese societies, namely mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. It establishes five criteria on creativity education policy, including policies regarding legislation on creativity education, definitions of creativity, standard implementation, explicit identification of special populations of creative students, and creativity education in the community. Among the four societies, Taiwan has an official document — the White Paper on Creative Education published in 2003 — whereas in Hong Kong and Singapore, creativity has been identified as an ability to be nurtured in students of all levels in their national curriculum reform. In mainland China, innovation is regarded as a synonym for creativity. Definitions of creativity have at times not been clearly defined, although multiple levels of creativity development (individual, school, societal, industrial, and cultural) have been discussed in Taiwan. In Hong Kong, creativity has been defined as a generic skill in various key learning areas (e.g., language education, mathematics education, science education, etc.) in the school curriculum. In Singapore, creativity is a learning outcome to be developed in students. None of these societies use standard creativity assessment tests as evidence of creative competence in students. When creativity has entered the central stage in the curriculum reform and creativity education is made available to every student, efforts have been made to identify highly creative students and provide them enrichment opportunities, mainly using performance assessments and performance in creativity competitions in these societies. But mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore do not sufficiently emphasize creativity education in the larger community.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Weiss, Matthias
AU – Hoegl, Martin
AU – Gibbert, Michael
TI – Making Virtue of Necessity: The Role of Team Climate for Innovation in Resource-Constrained Innovation Projects
JO – Journal of Product Innovation Management
JA – J Prod Innov Manag
VL – 28
IS – s1
SN – 1540-5885
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2011.00870.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2011.00870.x
SP – 196
EP – 207
PY – 2011
AB – The effect of financial resource constraints on innovation team performance is ambiguous. On the one hand, the majority of scholars have argued that financial resource constraints have an inhibiting effect on innovation, whereas budgetary slack supports creativity and innovation. Consistent with this notion, in most conceptual models on the management of innovation projects, the availability of slack, or at least adequate (rather than constrained) resources represents an important success factor supporting innovation. On the other hand, popular parlance has it that sometimes “necessity is the mother of innovation,” and literature in cognitive psychology suggests that resource constraints stimulate creativity and innovative behavior. Recent innovation literature indeed provides evidence that remarkable innovation outcomes can be achieved with constrained financial resources. Despite the rapidly growing research on success factors of innovation projects, and the high managerial relevance of budget questions, the influence of financial resource constraints has only very recently started to attract interest. The objective of the present study is to contribute to that research by investigating under what conditions financial resource constraints lead to innovation outcomes. Specifically, team climate for innovation is examined as a potentially important contingency variable of the relationship between financial resource constraints and innovation project performance. By explicitly focusing on team climate for innovation, factors of the work environment in innovation projects are addressed as influential boundary conditions for successfully innovating under financial resource constraints. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of 94 innovation project teams from a variety of industries. To ensure content validity and to avoid a possible common source bias, data from different respondents, i.e., team leaders, team members, and team external managers of the innovation projects, are used. Results of regression analyses show that there is no significant relationship between financial resource constraints and innovation project outcomes in terms of product quality and project efficiency. However, results show a significant interaction term of financial resource constraints and team climate for innovation in that team climate for innovation positively moderates the relationship between financial resource constraints and product quality as well as project efficiency. Thus, the findings of the present study contradict the widespread notion in innovation literature that financial resource constraints have a wholesale inhibiting effect on innovation, thereby providing a differentiated perspective on the relationship between financial resource constraints and innovation. On a practical level, the results of this study highlight a specific condition under which product developers can come up with more innovative solutions despite, or even because of, financial resource constraints.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Rickards, Tudor
TI – Innovation and creativity: woods, trees and pathways
JO – R&D Management
VL – 21
IS – 2
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1467-9310
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.1991.tb00740.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1467-9310.1991.tb00740.x
SP – 97
EP – 108
PY – 1991
AB – The terms ‘innovation’ and ‘creativity’ are in danger of complete degeneracy into a single blurred catch-all concept. This paper examines ‘potted thinking’, and some of the main sources of confusion in everyday thinking, and then considers four current theories which help resolve aspects of the confusion. Creativity is studied as intrinsically motivated behaviours and as a form of intelligence. Creativity and Innovation are compared within a systems framework, and as examples of complex problem-solving. The models help distinguish the highly personal nature of the creative process and the essentially social nature of the innovation process.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – McAdam, Rodney
AU – Keogh, William
TI – Transitioning Towards Creativity and Innovation Measurement in SMEs
JO – Creativity and Innovation Management
VL – 13
IS – 2
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
SN – 1467-8691
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-1690.2004.00300.x
DO – 10.1111/j.0963-1690.2004.00300.x
SP – 126
EP – 139
PY – 2004
AB – The aim of this paper is to explore the transition from traditional measures to creativity and innovation measures within a number of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) case studies. The need for increased competitiveness has created an impetus for increased creativity and innovation in SMEs. However, the measures associated with the process of creativity and innovation in organisations sometimes do not follow cause-and-effect rationale, reflecting non-linear behaviour. A multiple SME-based case research methodology is used to explore the transitioning effects from traditional to more creativity and innovation based measures. The cases were part of a longitudinal creativity and innovation intervention programme, which combined taught modules and Critical Action Learning networks over a two-year period. These networks involved sub-groups applying critical theory-based study to the learning they had received in the modules. The findings reveal that the transition dynamics include a complex mix of cause and effect rationale, phenomenology, incremental change, radical change, quantitative, qualitative and linear and complex contrasts and comparisons. Thus, managers must facilitate an eclectic approach to creativity and innovation measures.
ER –

TY – CHAP
TI – Innovations in Services
AU – Chang, C. M.
PB – John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
SN – 9780470900208
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470900208.ch12
DO – 10.1002/9780470900208.ch12
SP – 505
EP – 553
KW – innovations in services
KW – innovation – adding value to customers and service providers
KW – components of individual creativity – motivation, creative thinking skills, expertise
KW – value factor analysis – evaluating competing products/services
T2 – Service Systems Management and Engineering
PY – 2010
AB – This chapter contains sections titled:

* Introduction
* Creativity and Creative Thinking Strategies
* Fundamentals of Innovation
* Innovation Management
* Selected Innovation Practices in the Service Sectors
* Conclusions
* References
* Appendices
* Questions
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Haner, Udo-Ernst
TI – Spaces for Creativity and Innovation in Two Established Organizations
JO – Creativity and Innovation Management
VL – 14
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
SN – 1467-8691
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8691.2005.00347.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1476-8691.2005.00347.x
SP – 288
EP – 298
PY – 2005
AB – Organizational work environments are increasingly strategically designed to support creativity and innovation processes, although a consistent theoretical frame for such an endeavour has not been developed yet. Creativity- and innovation-oriented design of work environments requires an understanding of the principles of the underlying processes and their spatial implications. Both creativity and innovation processes are complex and display in different phases convergent and divergent characteristics. The processes are dependent on both individual and group effort. In this article these dimensions are discussed from a theoretical perspective and are used for evaluating the two cases presented here. The first case, the Interactive Creativity Landscape as integral part of the Fraunhofer Office Innovation Center in Germany has been designed interpreting the convergent and divergent phases of creative processes. The second case, the Learning Garden of a Scandinavian financial institution has been designed having de Bono’s procedure in mind. The article concludes with the suggestion that increasingly organizations will offer diversity for spatially supporting creativity and innovation processes; solutions will be manifold but will follow certain principles – some of which are discussed here.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Eisenbeiß, Silke Astrid
AU – Boerner, Sabine
TI – A Double-edged Sword: Transformational Leadership and Individual Creativity
JO – British Journal of Management
JA – Brit J Manage
SN – 1467-8551
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00786.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00786.x
SP – n/a
EP – n/a
PY – 2011
AB – Leadership research has focused on the positive effects of transformational and charismatic leadership but has neglected the negative side effects. Addressing this gap, we analysed followers’ dependency on the leader as a relevant negative side effect in the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ creativity and developed an integrative framework on parallel positive and negative effects of transformational leadership. As expected, results from a study with 416 R&D employees showed that transformational leadership promotes followers’ creativity but at the same time increases followers’ dependency which in turn reduces their creativity. This negative indirect effect attenuates the positive influence of transformational leadership on followers’ creativity.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – MATHISEN, GRO ELLEN
AU – MARTINSEN, ØYVIND
AU – EINARSEN, STÅLE
TI – The Relationship between Creative Personality Composition, Innovative Team Climate, and Team Innovativeness: An Input — Process — Output Perspective
JO – The Journal of Creative Behavior
VL – 42
IS – 1
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 2162-6057
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01078.x
DO – 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01078.x
SP – 13
EP – 31
PY – 2008
AB – This study investigates the relationship between creative personality composition, innovative team climate, and team innovation based on an input-process-output model. We measured personality with the Creative Person Profile, team climate with the Team Climate Inventory, and team innovation through team-member and supervisor reports of team innovativeness. The personality composition in each of 29 teams in a television production company was operationalized by mean scores for each creative personality variable, as well as the combination of different creative personality variables within a team. The team climate variable “vision” mediated the relationship between the mean level of associative orientation in teams and team innovation. The team climate variable “support of innovation” mediated the relationship between the joint variables of mean level of ambition x mean level of motivation and team innovation. The results indicated that when there are relationships between creative personality composition and team innovativeness, they are mediated by an innovative team climate.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Chiu, Chi-yue
AU – Kwan, Letty Y-Y.
TI – Culture and Creativity: A Process Model
JO – Management and Organization Review
VL – 6
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 1740-8784
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00194.x
DO – 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00194.x
SP – 447
EP – 461
KW – creativity
KW – culture
KW – knowledge
KW – multicultural experience
PY – 2010
AB – The articles in this forum present many innovative ideas on the role of culture in creativity. In this commentary, we first discuss the contributions of these articles in relation to two recurrent themes: (i) where creativity resides and (ii) what conceptual refinements are needed to push the field forward. Next, we outline a process model of creativity and explain the role of culture at each stage of knowledge creation. We argue that successful innovation involves one or more iterations of the following three stages: (i) authoring new ideas; (ii) selecting, editing, and marketing new ideas; and (iii) acceptance of the new ideas in the market. The desired outcomes are different at the different stages, and culture influences all stages of the process. Specifically, existing knowledge provides a reference point for evaluating the originality of ideas; assumed cultural consensus provides the normative basis for idea selection, editing, and marketing; and actual cultural norms determine how likely an idea will be accepted in a culture. Furthermore, different social and psychological processes are at work at different stages of the creativity process, and culture can affect the outcomes of the creativity process through its effects on these social and psychological processes.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – Georgsdottir, Asta S.
AU – Getz, Isaac
TI – How Flexibility Facilitates Innovation and Ways to Manage it in Organizations
JO – Creativity and Innovation Management
VL – 13
IS – 3
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
SN – 1467-8691
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-1690.2004.00306.x
DO – 10.1111/j.0963-1690.2004.00306.x
SP – 166
EP – 175
PY – 2004
AB – Flexibility is the capacity to change and to adapt to a challenging environment. It can be either adaptive – when challenges are present in the environment – or spontaneous – a preference for change without any external pressure. Change and adaptation are also key elements of innovation. In this article, we examine how different types of flexibility can play a major part in the innovation process. First, we discuss how flexible cognition and a flexible personality can facilitate the generation of innovations. Second, we discuss how flexibility can be beneficial to the audience for innovations. Lastly, we use the previous discussion of the benefits of flexibility for innovation to illuminate and present some approaches to the improvement of flexibility – both of employees and of the audience – for innovation. These approaches come both from other researchers’ work and from our own original research on the best practices of innovation management in Europe.
ER –

TY – JOUR
AU – SCHOENFELDT, LYLE F.
AU – JANSEN, KAREN J.
TI – Methodological Requirements for Studying Creativity in Organizations
JO – The Journal of Creative Behavior
VL – 31
IS – 1
PB – Blackwell Publishing Ltd
SN – 2162-6057
UR – http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1997.tb00782.x
DO – 10.1002/j.2162-6057.1997.tb00782.x
SP – 73
EP – 90
PY – 1997
AB – This article begins by broadly defining creativity and then more narrowly focusing on the definition of this construct. The broad methodological issues associated with organizational creativity are then discussed. To a large extent, the methodological requirements for studying organizational creativity depend on theoretical models. The most relevant theoretical models are reviewed. Specific methodological requirements for studying creativity in organizations are then reviewed, with emphasis on issues of validity and reliability. Finally, the article considers how organizational creativity research might be studied in a manner consistent with the methodological issues raised.

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- who has written 290 posts on avantifontana.com.

Author "Innovate We Can!" Manajemen Inovasi dan Penciptaan Nilai (Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, 2009), Facilitator & Coach for Innovation, Pemerhati dan Periset Bidang Manajemen Inovasi (Universitas Indonesia).

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